__Sir Isaac Newton__ (25 December 1642– 20 March 1726/27) was an English Mathematics, Astronomy, theologian, author and Physics (described in his own day as a "natural philosophy") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
His book ''Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica'' ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus - wikipedia
In ''Principia'', Newton formulated the Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until being superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to prove Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for the Trajectory of comets, tides, the Axial precession, and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentrism.
He demonstrated that the Dynamics (mechanics) on Earth and Astronomical object could be accounted for by the celestial mechanics. Newton's prediction that the Earth is an Spheroid#Oblate_spheroids was later vindicated by the geodetic measurements of Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Charles Marie de La Condamine, and others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems.
Newton also built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a Dispersive prism separates Electromagnetic spectrum#Visible radiation (light) into the colours of the visible spectrum. His work on light was collected in his highly influential book ''Opticks'', published in 1704.
He also formulated an Newton's law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a Newton's method for approximating the Zero of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian, who privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity and who, unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and Chronology of the Bible, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death.
Politically and personally tied to the Whigs (British political party), Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament of the United Kingdom for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Anne, Queen of Great Britain in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden of the Mint (1696–1700) and Master of the Mint (1700–1727) of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society (1703–1727).
# See also
- Ismaël Bullialdus - De Motu (Berkeley's essay) - Elements of the Philosophy of Newton - Finite difference: Newton's series - Gauss–Newton algorithm - Calculus - History of calculus - Glossary of calculus - History of the telescope - Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy - List of multiple discoveries: seventeenth century - List of things named after Isaac Newton